The Vienna Convention promoted intergovernmental cooperation in research, systematic monitoring of the ozone layer, monitoring of CFC production, and information sharing. Following the adoption of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, a framework agreement that does not include legally binding controls or targets, work has begun on a protocol that will enable the control of use and production of ozone-depleting substances. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted in September 1987. With the detection of the ozone hole over Antarctica in 1985, governments judged the need for drastic measures to reduce the production and consumption of many Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and some halons. The Montreal Protocol was created in such a way that the phase-out calendar can be revised based on periodic scientific and technological evaluations. Following these technical and scientific evaluations, the Protocol amended in 1990 (London), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1999 (Beijing) and in 2007 (Montreal). In addition, these regulations led to the inclusion of new control clauses and new measures in the agreement. The Montreal Protocol, to which 197 countries are party, is defined as the most successful multilateral agreement on the environment. In June 1990, a "Multilateral Fund (MLF)" was established in London, which was seen as a great success of the protocol and was created with the contributions of developed countries. The MLF has supported the industry of developing countries for many years. Technical specialization of implementing agencies is used for the transfer of new technologies and equipment in MLf funded projects aimed at eliminating of ODSs. The Multilateral Fund has supported more than 8600 projects for developing countries since 1991.
Türkiye; became a party to the Protocol on 19 December 1991 and has accepted all the amendments of the Protocol. The monitoring of national and international studies regarding the protocol is carried out under the coordination of the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change, which acts as the National Focal Point. Our country is among the most successful countries in the implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
The Montreal Protocol, which constitutes the beginning of the efforts to solve global environmental problems under the umbrella of the United Nations and to which 198 countries are parties, is accepted as the successful international environmental agreement reached so far. The Protocol contains provisions on control measures of Ozone Depleting Substances, quota obligations, control of trade with non-Party countries, special situation of developing countries and data reporting obligations. Substances controlled by the Protocol listed as Annex A (CFCs, halons), B (other fully halogenated CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform), C (HCFCs), E (methyl bromide) and F (HFCs).
Kigali Amendmentto the Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances
The protocol has developed and changed over the years in the light of new scientific, technical and economic developments and continues to be amended if necessary. The protocol has been amended 4 times until the Kigali amendment, and all of these amendments have been accepted by our country and 197 countries.
Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases, which are widely used as alternatives to ODSs after the phasing out of ODSs all over the world, have been added to the list of control substances under the Montreal Protocol with the Kigali Amendment adopted in 2016 due to their high greenhouse gas effects. Hereby, along with the reduction of these gases with very high global warming potential; an important step has been taken towards combating climate change. Türkiye became a party to the Kigali Amendment on 10 November 2021.
The Kigali Amendment is designed to phase down the production and consumption of 18 Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) class gases among fluorinated greenhouse gases with high global warming potential. The countries party to the protocol were divided into 4 groups and have different phase down calendars were arranged for each group. Our country is listed in the 1st group of developing countries (A5). In this context, we are committed to reduce our HFC production and consumption as of 2024.
With the works carried out under the Montreal Protocol between 1990 and 2010, 135 billion tons of CO2 equivalent emissions worldwide were prevented from being released into the atmosphere. With the Kigali Amendment, the global phasing down of 85% of HFCs is expected to reduce emissions equivalent to 72 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) by 2050.
Economic and accessible, low global warming potential and even natural alternatives of these gases, which are mainly used in the air conditioning and cooling sector, have been widely used all over the world. Fluorinated greenhouse gas emissions are increasing rapidly all over the world, but especially in developing economies, due to the increase in the use of air conditioning and cooling systems. The Kigali Amendment obligations will also make a major contribution to staying within the Paris Agreement 1.5 degree target. According to the data of the United Nations Environment Program, reduction of the production and consumption of fluorinated greenhouse gases in the foreseen calendar will prevent a temperature increase of 0.5 degrees by the end of the century.